How Should You Distribute Your Craft Beer?

So you’ve made your own craft beer and want to start selling it around the country and possibly around the world. Where to begin? It should be straightforward but the food and beverage industry is...

News Company - avatar News Company

The Mobile Liberation and Imprisonment

We all walk around with a device in our pockets that are capable of things that go way beyond just calling someone. They are little entertainment and communication devices that have shaped our daily r...

News Company - avatar News Company

3 lessons from behavioural economics Bill Shorten's Labor Party forgot about

Three simple lessons from behavioural economics would have helped the Labor Party sell its economic credentials.www.shutterstock.comThe Australian Labor Party’s 2019 election campaign showed a d...

Tracey West, Lecturer in Behavioural Finance, Griffith University - avatar Tracey West, Lecturer in Behavioural Finance, Griffith University

‘Bright white skeletons’: some Western Australian reefs have the lowest coral cover on record

Corals at Scott Reef in 2012, and at the same site during the 2016 mass bleaching.James Gilmour/AIMSDiving on the remote coral reefs in the north of Western Australia during the world’s worst bl...

James Paton Gilmour, Research Scientist: Coral Ecology, Australian Institute of Marine Science - avatar James Paton Gilmour, Research Scientist: Coral Ecology, Australian Institute of Marine Science

From sharks in seagrass to manatees in mangroves, we've found large marine species in some surprising places

When we think of mangrove forests, seagrass meadows and saltmarshes, we don’t immediately think of shark habitats. But the first global review of links between large marine animals (megafauna) a...

Michael Sievers, Research Fellow, Global Wetlands Project, Australia Rivers Institute, Griffith University - avatar Michael Sievers, Research Fellow, Global Wetlands Project, Australia Rivers Institute, Griffith University

Aboriginal mothers are incarcerated at alarming rates – and their mental and physical health suffers

Being separated from their children affects the mental well-being of Aboriginal mothers in prison.ChrisMilesProductions/ShutterstockAboriginal women are the fastest growing prison population in Austra...

Sacha Kendall, Post-doctoral research fellow in public health, University of Technology Sydney - avatar Sacha Kendall, Post-doctoral research fellow in public health, University of Technology Sydney

How close is Sydney to the vision of creating three 30-minute cities?

Sydney CBD is highly accessible and remains clearly the dominant centre in the metropolitan region.Holli/ShutterstockThe Greater Sydney Commission has proposed a 40-year vision of a metropolitan regio...

Somwrita Sarkar, Senior Lecturer in Design and Computation, University of Sydney - avatar Somwrita Sarkar, Senior Lecturer in Design and Computation, University of Sydney

Hidden women of history: Ennigaldi-Nanna, curator of the world's first museum

The National Museum of Iraq photographed in February 2018. Many of the pieces discovered at the ruins of Ur, arranged and labelled by Ennigaldi-Nanna, can be found here.Wikimedia CommonsIn this series...

Louise Pryke, Lecturer, Languages and Literature of Ancient Israel, Macquarie University - avatar Louise Pryke, Lecturer, Languages and Literature of Ancient Israel, Macquarie University

The 'pulse' of a volcano can be used to help predict its next eruption

The 2018 eruption of Kilauea volcano was preceded by damage of the magma plumbing system at the summit.Courtesy of Grace Tobin, 60 Minutes, Author providedPredicting when a volcano will next blow is t...

Rebecca Carey, Senior Lecturer in Earth Sciences, University of Tasmania - avatar Rebecca Carey, Senior Lecturer in Earth Sciences, University of Tasmania

Queensland paper backtracks after using violent imagery to depict Annastacia Palaszczuk

Social media backlash and a Queensland government complaint to the Australian Press Council has forced the Sunshine Coast Daily to apologise to its readers for picturing Queensland Premier Annastacia ...

Jenna Price, Senior lecturer, University of Technology Sydney - avatar Jenna Price, Senior lecturer, University of Technology Sydney

Bowen carries baggage into Labor leadership contest

Shadow treasurer Chris Bowen is running for Labor leader, despite carrying the baggage of being the architect of election policies, especially on franking credits, now being blamed after Saturday&rsqu...

Michelle Grattan, Professorial Fellow, University of Canberra - avatar Michelle Grattan, Professorial Fellow, University of Canberra

US-China relations are certainly at a low point, but this is not the next Cold War

Though a Cold War between China and the US seems unlikely, there are still repercussions of a deepening rift.Roman Pilipey/EPATrump’s long-threatened trade war with China is now a reality. Beiji...

Nick Bisley, Head of Humanities and Social Sciences and Professor of International Relations at La Trobe University, La Trobe University - avatar Nick Bisley, Head of Humanities and Social Sciences and Professor of International Relations at La Trobe University, La Trobe University

Here's how to make opinion polls more representative and honest

Better opinions polls are more expensive because pollsters need to spend more effort getting a representative and honest sample of voters.ShutterstockIn 2012, US statistician Nate Silver correctly pre...

Adrian Barnett, Professor of Statistics; President of the Statistical Society of Australia, Queensland University of Technology - avatar Adrian Barnett, Professor of Statistics; President of the Statistical Society of Australia, Queensland University of Technology

After Clive Palmer's $60 million campaign, limits on political advertising are more important than ever

Clive Palmer didn't win any seats for his party in the election, but he says his massive advertising spend was "worth it" to prevent Bill Shorten from becoming prime minister.Darren England/AAPCan bil...

Marian Sawer, Emeritus Professor, School of Politics and International Relations, Australian National University - avatar Marian Sawer, Emeritus Professor, School of Politics and International Relations, Australian National University

imageEngland is on track for its hottest year since records began in 1659.AAP Image/NEWZULU/STEPHEN CHUNG

As representatives from around the world sit down in Lima to discuss how to tackle the ever-growing problem of climate change, it is becoming increasingly likely that 2014 will be the hottest year on record – beating the previous benchmarks set in 1998 and 2010.

This record is likely to occur despite the recent “warming hiatus”, which has featured a reduced warming trend in global-average surface air temperatures.

imageHistorical January-October average surface temperatures relative to the long-term average. 2014 is the hottest over the globe.NOAA, Author provided

Of course, that doesn’t mean every area of the world will experience a record-breaking hot year, even if it is the hottest on average globally. There is large variability in temperature trends around the world, so in some places the record hottest year could be 2014, whereas in other places it could be a different year.

In fact, while it has been unusually warm across much of the world this year, it’s been cooler than average across eastern North America because of a severe winter there at the beginning of the year.

Australia, meanwhile, has just experienced its hottest spring on record, and in Europe it’s also been hotter than normal. The Central England Temperature series, which dates back to 1659, is heading for its hottest year on record.

imageJanuary-October 2014 was warmer than usual across most of the world.NOAA, Author provided

Digging into the data

There are three main data sets of global average surface temperature: two in the United States – one maintained by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the other by NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies; and the third compiled by the UK Met Office’s Hadley Centre and the University of East Anglia’s Climatic Research Unit.

Small differences in the way these data sets are compiled (mainly related to how data is handled in regions where there are few observations) and uncertainties related to temperature measurements mean it is possible that not all the data sets will show 2014 to be the hottest year on record. A more detailed explanation of some of the differences between the data sets can be found here.

The UK Met Office’s data point to a close-run contest for whether 2014 will set a new temperature record, with uncertainties leading to unclear rankings.

image2014 ranks as the hottest in the Met Office data set but there is high uncertainty in the ranking.UK Met Office, Author provided

This graph, and the other data sets, show that the hottest years on record have all occurred in the last couple of decades.

With November and December yet to be included it is unclear whether 2014 will rank as the hottest year on record, as the World Meteorological Organization has predicted. The differences in average temperatures between the hottest years are around 0.02C, well within the uncertainty range.

However, it is clear from these independently compiled data sets that Earth has warmed significantly over the past century. The most recent report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) stated that warming of the climate is “unequivocal”.

A host of studies documented by the IPCC have proved beyond reasonable doubt that human activity has played a major role in this heating.

As the climate continues to warm we are likely to keep experiencing record hot years over the next few decades.

The Lima talks, and the Paris meeting next year, may in part determine whether future generations will find that temperatures like this year’s record will be considered normal, or even colder than normal, in 50 years' time.

image

Andrew King receives funding from the ARC Centre of Excellence for Climate System Science.

David Karoly receives funding from the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Climate System Science and the Australian Antarctic Division. He is a member of the Climate Change Authority and the Wentworth Group of Concerned Scientists.

Read more http://theconversation.com/hot-2014-closes-in-on-top-spot-in-world-temperature-rankings-35046